Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2016, V. 233, p. 120–126
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We synthesized a solid sensory material for the extraction, detection and quantification of iron(III) in aqueous media. The material is a film-shaped colorless polymer membrane that exhibits gel behavior. The Fe(III) extraction and sensing characteristics are imparted by a new monomer derived from a natural product (i.e., Kojic acid), which exhibits chelating properties toward Fe(III). The sorption of Fe(III) on the membrane in water has been thoroughly characterized, including the sorption kinetics, sorption isotherms and profiles as a function of the pH. Fe(III) sorption followed pseudo first-order kinetics and required approximately 30 min to reach equilibrium. The maximum sorption capacity was approximately 0.04 mmol/g, and the sorption isotherms are well modeled by the Langmuir equation. The complexes that were found in the solid phase are in good agreement with those previously identified in the aqueous phase. Moreover, the sorption is highly specific (i.e., a recognition process) and results from the formation of a colored complex (iron(III)-Kojic acid derivative moieties). Therefore, the colorless sensory membrane turns red upon immersion in aqueous solutions containing Fe(III). The color output allows for both the qualitative visual determination of the Fe(III) concentration as well as also titration of Fe(III) using a) a UV/vis technique (limit of detection of 3.6 × 10−5 M; dynamic range of five decades, lower concentration = 1.65 × 10−6 M) and b) a computer vision-based analytical chemistry approach via color definition of the sensory membrane (RGB parameters) obtained from an image recorded with a handy device (e.g., a smartphone) (limit of detection of 2.0 × 10−5 M).
Sensory polymers Kojic acid visual detection iron detection iron extraction