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Comprehensive characterization of industrial wastewaters using EEM fluorescence, FT-IR and 1H NMR techniques
Science of The Total Environment. 2022, V. 805, 150417
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The organic matter present in six industrial wastewaters (pulp and paper mill, brewery, textile, dairy, slaughterhouse effluents and a municipal landfill leachate) has been studied in this work using three analytical techniques: excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pulp and paper mill effluent shows characteristic signals of the presence of lignins, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, as well as sulfate, carbonate and sulfonates (coming from surfactants used in the cleaning of tanks). The main constituents of the brewery effluent are peptides and proteins coming mainly from spent yeast and diatomite filters (the presence of the latter was confirmed by Sisingle bondO bands in the FTIR spectrum). The municipal landfill leachate is characterized by the majority presence of humic substances (typical of an old landfill) and a residual presence of small peptides, amino acids and carboxylic acids. Additionally, several inorganic compounds were identified by FTIR, such as nitrate, sulfate, phosphate and cyanide ions. The textile effluent from a cotton-based industry contains carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and sulfonates, which can act as auxochromes in the textile industry. The dairy effluent comprises amino acids and small peptides coming from the biodegradation of milk and whey in addition to carbohydrates (lactose) and carboxylic acids (mainly lactic acid). The presence of tyrosine-like peaks B in the EEMF spectrum of the slaughterhouse effluent indicates the existence of small peptides and amino acids coming from the biodegradation of blood proteins. Additionally, residual glucose, fatty acids, phosphate and sulfate were also identified in this effluent.
Dissolved organic matter
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